Pyridoxine HCI

Pyridoxine, or vitamin B6, is a water-soluble vitamin found in cereal grains, legumes, vegetables, liver, meat, and eggs. Pyridoxine is used to counter vitamin B6 deficiency and to prevent or treat toxicity from isoniazid, cycloserine, or hydralazine. It’s also used to treat sideroblastic anemia associated with elevated serum iron levels. Vitamin B6 has been used in pyridoxine-dependent neonates to control seizures and in patients with metabolic disorders such as xanthurenic aciduria, primary hyperoxaluria, primary cystathioninuria, and primary homocystinuria. Pyridoxine hydrochloride has been commercially available since approval by the FDA in 1940.

Vitamin B6 is composed of pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine, and food sources usually offer all three forms. Pyridoxine is converted in erythrocytes to its active moiety, pyridoxal phosphate, while pyridoxamine is converted into pyridoxamine phosphate. These forms act as coenzymes for at least 60 metabolic processes including the metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. Their role in protein metabolism includes decarboxylation of amino acids, conversion of tryptophan to niacin or serotonin, deamination, and transamination of amino acids. In carbohydrate metabolism, this process is required to convert glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate. Pyridoxine contributes to the synthesis of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the central nervous system and also to the synthesis of heme.


Pyridoxine can be administered by IV or IM injection. Vitamin B6 is stored primarily in the liver, and secondarily in the brain and muscles. Pyridoxal crosses the placenta, with fetal concentrations five times that of maternal plasma concentrations. Pyridoxal and pyridoxal phosphate are the primary forms of vitamin B6 found in the blood. Pyridoxal phosphate is 100% protein-bound. The half-life of pyridoxine is 15 to 20 days. Conversion of pyridoxine to pyridoxal phosphate, and pyridoxamine to pyridoxamine phosphate takes place in erythrocytes. Pyridoxine is also phosphorylated in the liver, where pyridoxal is oxidized to produce 4-pyridoxic acid, which is excreted in the urine.

Pregnancy/ Breastfeeding
Adverse Reactions/ Side Effects
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