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Multitrace-5 Concentrate Injection

Each dose contains: Zinc Sulfate Heptahydrate; Cupric Sulfate Pentahydrate; Manganese Sulfate Monohydrate; Chromic Chloride Hexahydrate; Selenious Acid; and Water. The pH of the solution may have been adjusted with Sulfuric Acid. A 10mL Multiple Dose Vial contains Benzyl Alcohol as an antimicrobial preservative.

Pharmacokinetics

Zinc serves as a cofactor for over 70 different enzymes, including alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase and both RNA and DNA polymerase. In this role, zinc promotes wound healing, regulates growth rates, and contributes to skin hydration, taste, and smell.

Providing zinc during TPN prevents the following deficiency symptoms: Parakeratosis, hypogeusia, anorexia, dysosmia, geophagia, hypogonadism, growth retardation and hepatosplenomegaly. At plasma levels below 20mcg zinc/100mL, dermatitis and alopecia have been reported for TPN patients.

Copper is a cofactor for serum ceruloplasmin, which is necessary for proper formation of the iron carrier protein, transferrin. Copper also regulates rates of red and white blood cell formation. Scorbutic type bone changes seen in infants fed exclusively with copper-poor cow's milk may be due to decreased activity of ascorbate oxidase, a cuproenzyme.

Providing copper during TPN prevents the following deficiencies: leukopenia, neutropenia, anemia, depressed ceruloplasmin levels, impaired transferrin formation and secondary iron deficiency.

Manganese activates enzymes such as polysaccharide polymerase, liver arginase, cholinesterase and pyruvate carboxylase. Providing manganese during TPN prevents the following deficiency symptoms: nausea and vomiting, weight loss, dermatitis, and changes in growth and color of hair.

Chromium (trivalent) is part of glucose tolerance factor, an activator of insulin-mediated reactions.. Chromium supports glucose metabolism and peripheral nerve function.

Providing chromium during TPN prevents the following deficiency symptoms: impaired glucose tolerance, ataxia, peripheral neuropathy and a confused state similar to mild hepatic encephalopathy.

Selenium is part of glutathione peroxidase which protects cells from oxidative damage due to peroxides produced during cellular metabolism.

Prolonged TPN in humans has resulted in selenium deficiency symptoms including muscle pain and tenderness.

General Administration Information
Contraindications/Precautions
Pregnancy/ Breastfeeding
Adverse Reactions/ Side Effects
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